Formula 1
Formula 1
R
Emilia Romagna GP
18 Apr
Race in
41 days
R
Portuguese GP
02 May
Race in
55 days
09 May
Next event in
59 days
23 May
Race in
76 days
R
Azerbaijan GP
06 Jun
Race in
90 days
13 Jun
Race in
97 days
27 Jun
Race in
111 days
04 Jul
Next event in
115 days
18 Jul
Race in
132 days
R
Hungarian GP
01 Aug
Race in
146 days
29 Aug
Race in
174 days
05 Sep
Race in
181 days
12 Sep
Race in
188 days
26 Sep
Race in
202 days
R
Singapore GP
03 Oct
Next event in
206 days
10 Oct
Race in
216 days
R
United States GP
24 Oct
Race in
230 days
31 Oct
Race in
237 days
R
Australian GP
21 Nov
Race in
258 days
R
Saudi Arabia GP
05 Dec
Race in
272 days
R
Abu Dhabi GP
12 Dec
Race in
279 days
Giorgio Piola's F1 technical analysis
Topic

Giorgio Piola's F1 technical analysis

The hidden tech fight that will define F1 2021

An extremely important Formula 1 battle has been brewing away from the track in 2020, and enters its most important phase as the clock ticks past midnight on December 31.

The hidden tech fight that will define F1 2021

At that point, the 2021 regulations come into force and teams will be able to conduct CFD and wind tunnel work with their 2022 designs.

Working on aero for the new era is something that’s been prohibited until now, even though teams have had sight of the regulations for some time.

The reason that the FIA has restricted simulation work in this way is that it didn’t want to hand the teams with more resources an advantage over those further down the grid.

Amid the challenges of the coronavirus pandemic, ensuring no huge disparity between the teams with money to burn and those without cash was considered a high priority.

But, there are further ramifications to consider too, as the teams will be handicapped differently going into 2021, as Formula 1’s new sliding scale system for aero development comes into force.

Championship Position

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10+ or a new team

2021

90%

92.5%

95%

97.5%

100%

102.5%

105%

107.5%

110%

112.5%

2022-2025

70%

75%

80%

85%

90%

95%

100%

105%

110%

115%

The amount of simulation time that’s available to each team will now be governed by their position in the championship, creating a curve that should offset some of the glaring differences that teams have in terms of resources.

If we consider how this impacts wind tunnel time in 2021, the reference of 100% wind on time is equal to 80 hours, with 320 runs and tunnel occupancy at 400 hours.

This means Mercedes will have 72 hours, 288 runs and 360 hours of occupancy, whilst Williams will have 90 hours, 360 runs and 450 occupancy hours.

The tilting scale grows to an even more significant number from 2022 onwards too, with the lead constructor allowed just 70% of the agreed wind tunnel time and CFD limits.

There is further nuance to the system to consider too though, as the year is also split up into six testing periods which are then affected by the team’s position in both the previous championship and the current one, with each taken into account depending on the period in question.

It is hoped that, over time, this system will close the gap between the competitors but, as with every regulation, there will be ways in which teams can find advantages. 

Mercedes, knowing it is going to be hurt more than anyone else on the grid by these changes, seems to have approached the task in a way that’s out of step to its competitors.

For it appears to have fast tracked its 2021 work into early 2020, with the development of the W11 receding much sooner than you’d normally expect. 

After all, the W11 was the most dominant car in the field and the fastest in Formula 1’s history, which gave Mercedes the headroom it needed to halt upgrade work early and focus its attention more longer term.

Mercedes F1 W11 front wing comparison

Mercedes F1 W11 front wing comparison

Photo by: Giorgio Piola

To get an idea of how early it switched off the 2020 pipeline, we last saw a significant development from Mercedes at the Tuscan Grand Prix in September. There, the team introduced a new front wing with a different flap configuration that’s been on and off the car since, depending on the characteristics of the circuit in question. 

That doesn’t mean it has not developed the car at all since then though, as there’s always improvements being made throughout the course of a season, especially in terms of weight saving. But, there’s been very little in terms of aerodynamic statement pieces.

Meanwhile, in that same period, we’ve seen the likes of Red Bull and Ferrari, which have comparable resources, completely alter the DNA of their cars, pulling them relatively closer to the front of the pack. 

Ferrari SF1000 rear wing endplate comparison

Ferrari SF1000 rear wing endplate comparison
1/13

Photo by: Giorgio Piola

Ferrari introduced a rear wing endplate design very similar to that seen on the W11

Ferrari SF1000 nose inlet detail

Ferrari SF1000 nose inlet detail
2/13

Photo by: Giorgio Piola

As part of a U-turn on its development programme, Ferrari altered the position of the plough on its nose, impacting flow through the inlets it creates beside the nose tip.

Ferrari SF1000 front wing Russian GP comparison

Ferrari SF1000 front wing Russian GP comparison
3/13

Photo by: Giorgio Piola

Ferrari added a series of arched flaps on top of the turning vane’s footplates in order to pick up the flow it received and give it a gentle show in the right direction.

Ferrari SF1000 new bargeboard detail

Ferrari SF1000 new bargeboard detail
4/13

Photo by: Giorgio Piola

Changes were made to the bargeboard and sidepod deflectors to better deal with the revised structures that were being created ahead, and also improve how they deal with the wake turbulence created by the front wheel.

Ferrari SF1000 front wing Emilia-Romagna GP

Ferrari SF1000 front wing Emilia-Romagna GP
5/13

Photo by: Giorgio Piola

To adjust the front-to-rear load, Ferrari also trimmed its front wing upper flap

Ferrari SF1000 detail diffuser

Ferrari SF1000 detail diffuser
6/13

Photo by: Giorgio Piola

At the rear of the car, the roof panel used on previous cars to create a tunnel in the floor beneath the crash structure was pressed back into service.

Ferrari SF1000 diffuser

Ferrari SF1000 diffuser
7/13

Photo by: Giorgio Piola

The diffuser was also subject to a retrograde, with the team reverting to a specification used right at the start of the season.

Red Bull RB16 rear suspension detailed

Red Bull RB16 rear suspension detailed
8/13

Photo by: Giorgio Piola

A new rear upright was on the agenda for Red Bull. Taking inspiration from Mercedes, it features a triangular opening that allows air to flow through.

Red Bull RB16 halo fins

Red Bull RB16 halo fins
9/13

Photo by: Giorgio Piola

A small winglet was added on the outside of the halo’s frame in order to adjust flow down over the sidepod and engine cover.

Red Bull Racing RB16 front wing end plate comparison

Red Bull Racing RB16 front wing end plate comparison
10/13

Photo by: Giorgio Piola

Multiple changes were made to the outboard portion of the RB16’s front wing, with changes that affected the footplate and endplate most prevalent throughout.

Red Bull Racing RB16 exhaust comparison

Red Bull Racing RB16 exhaust comparison
11/13

Photo by: Giorgio Piola

Red Bull had been the only one to place its wastegate pipework in a higher position [2] but altered this in the closing stages of the season, moving them to a more conventional location [1]. This alteration was made in conjunction with changes to the centre of the diffuser too [3&4].

Red Bull Racing RB16 front wing, Turkish GP

Red Bull Racing RB16 front wing, Turkish GP
12/13

Photo by: Giorgio Piola

Another new front wing appeared at the Turkish GP, with its attention switched to the inboard elements, altering the mainplane’s shape and the flap frequency in order that the Y250 vortex be tuned differently. Consequently it added a hole in its cape too, in order that the flow downstream was also altered.

Red Bull Racing RB16 rear, single pillar

Red Bull Racing RB16 rear, single pillar
13/13

Photo by: Giorgio Piola

A new rear wing support was introduced in Abu Dhabi, as the team raced a single pillar, rather than the double one it had used all year.

The changes made by both in the backend of the season have clearly helped to improve its fortunes, but that’s not to say that the work it has done won’t continue to bear fruit into 2021, especially as we have a huge amount of carry over.

Looking to the future

The obvious conclusion to draw here is that Mercedes has spent a large portion of this season concentrating its efforts quietly on 2021, forsaking any larger gains for 2020 in the process.

It will hope the early development of its 2021 challenger will allow it to spend a disproportionate amount of time on its 2022 design, potentially offsetting the percentage losses that the sliding scale will have on it compared to its rivals.

Moreover, the regulations only go as far as limiting the team’s abilities to simulate the aerodynamic impact of its designs.

Therefore, as the clock ticks past the deadline I’d expect teams to have various iterations of their CAD models and scale wind tunnel models ready to test.

And based on what we’ve seen from Mercedes this year, you’d have to expect it will have a head start in that regard.

2021 F1 rules model

2021 F1 rules model

Photo by: Giorgio Piola

shares
comments

Related video

Hamilton knighted in Queen’s New Year Honours list

Previous article

Hamilton knighted in Queen’s New Year Honours list

Next article

Vettel: Mick Schumacher has to "find his own path" in F1

Vettel: Mick Schumacher has to "find his own path" in F1
Load comments

About this article

Series Formula 1
Author Giorgio Piola
The defining traits that set F1’s best apart Prime

The defining traits that set F1’s best apart

What makes the very best drivers in Formula 1 stand out among what is already a highly elite bunch? Andrew Benson takes a closer look at those with the special blend of skill, judgment, feel and attitude that sets only a select few apart from the rest.

The updates Williams hopes will lead to a point-scoring return Prime

The updates Williams hopes will lead to a point-scoring return

After producing a car which demonstrated progress but lacked the points to prove it last year, Williams starts its new era of team ownership with the FW43B, its bid to continue the climb up the Formula 1 grid in 2021

Formula 1
Mar 5, 2021
How Ferrari plans to recover from its 2020 F1 nightmare Prime

How Ferrari plans to recover from its 2020 F1 nightmare

The 2020 Formula 1 season was Ferrari's worst for 40 years as it slumped to sixth in the standings. A repeat performance will not be acceptable for the proud Italian team, which has adopted a notably pragmatic approach to forging its path back to the top

Formula 1
Mar 4, 2021
Why Aston Martin’s arrival is more than just new green livery Prime

Why Aston Martin’s arrival is more than just new green livery

In the most eagerly anticipated Formula 1 team launch of the season, the rebranded Aston Martin squad’s changes go much further than the striking paint job. But rather than a restart, the team hopes to build on top of solid foundations.

Formula 1
Mar 3, 2021
The car Aston Martin begins its new F1 journey with Prime

The car Aston Martin begins its new F1 journey with

The team formerly known as Racing Point gambled successfully on a Mercedes look-alike in 2020 as it mounted a strong challenge for third in the constructors' race and won the Sakhir GP. Now clothed in British racing green, Aston Martin's first Formula 1 challenger since 1960 provides the clearest indicator yet of what to expect from the new-for-2021 regulations

Formula 1
Mar 3, 2021
The tricky driver conundrums facing Mercedes in F1 2021 Prime

The tricky driver conundrums facing Mercedes in F1 2021

Ahead of the new Formula 1 season, reigning world champions Mercedes will take on challenges both old and new. This also can be said for its driver conundrum which could become key to sustaining its ongoing success...

Formula 1
Mar 2, 2021
How Alpine's cure to 2021 F1 rules starts at the front Prime

How Alpine's cure to 2021 F1 rules starts at the front

A new name, new faces and new colours pulls the rebranded Alpine Formula 1 team into a new era while carrying over core elements of its 2020 car. But under the surface there's more than meets the eye with the A521 which hints at how the team will tackle 2021...

Formula 1
Mar 2, 2021
Can Mercedes' W12 retain the team's crown? Prime

Can Mercedes' W12 retain the team's crown?

Replacing Formula 1's fastest car was never going to be an easy feat for Mercedes. Amid the technical rule tweaks to peg back the W12 and its 2021 rivals, the new Mercedes challenger will remain the target to beat

Formula 1
Mar 2, 2021