Singapore GP: Williams technical preview

Talking technical Car dynamics Average turn angle indicates the average angle of a circuit's corners expressed in degrees. The higher the average turn angle, the more acute the corners in the circuit's configuration and the greater propensity...

Talking technical

Car dynamics

Average turn angle indicates the average angle of a circuit's corners expressed in degrees. The higher the average turn angle, the more acute the corners in the circuit's configuration and the greater propensity for understeer to compromise lap time. Average turn angle at Singapore is 940 - which is below the average for the Championship. The circuit layout threads its way through the Singapore streets and comprises 23 corners. Good car stability will allow the driver to run even closer to the walls.

The end of straight (EOS) speed at Singapore was 291kp/h in 2008. The Singapore track ranks as having the 2nd slowest EOS speed on the 2009 calendar, and this is one indicator of the wing level typically selected to optimise the downforce/drag ratio. Meanwhile, Singapore also has the 2nd slowest average lap speed of any of the tracks on the calendar.

Pitlane & refuelling strategy

The pitlane length and profile contribute to the determination of the optimum fuel strategy. The pitlane loss at Singapore is approximately 19.5 seconds, which is the 13th most penalising pitlane in the Championship. To complete a normalised distance of 5km around Singapore requires 2.50kg of fuel against an average of 2.42kg per 5km across all circuits this season, ranking the circuit as the 3rd most demanding in terms of fuel consumption.

Safety car

Another key contributor to the determination of race strategy is the likelihood of safety car deployments, which are influenced by weather considerations, the availability of clear run-off areas that allow racing to continue while recovery takes place and the circuit profile, especially the character of the entry and exit into turn one at the start of the race. There were 2 safety car deployments in the inaugural Singapore Grand Prix. The street circuit layout and lack of circuit run-off areas make it highly possible that there will be a safety car period again this year.

Temperature, pressure & humidity

As an example, it is a long observed tradition that drivers arriving at Interlagos complain about a lack of grip and an absence of engine power. Having become acquainted with a baseline of engine and aerodynamic performance during the season, the climb to 750 metres above sea level for one of the final races can, courtesy of the reduction in air density, rob a Formula One car of engine power, aerodynamic performance and cooling. The losses can come close to double digit percentages and thus have a very real impact on car performance.

Air density is a factor of the prevailing ambient temperature, which varies most significantly by season, air pressure which is closely linked to altitude and, to a much smaller degree, by humidity. Thus if races are run at the same time each year, the factor that tends to have the greatest bearing on air density is elevation. Singapore is at sea level and has an average pressure of 1,010mbar. As a consequence, the circuit's ambient characteristics will have little effect on engine power.

-credit: williams

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About this article
Series Formula 1
Teams Williams