F1

Formula One FAQ (modified 10-15-96) Part 1 of 2

You obviously already have a copy of this FAQ but if you don't have the most up to date version you can get it from: http://www.ultranet.com/~mitchmcc/ It is also posted on or about the 15th of each month ...

You obviously already have a copy of this FAQ but if you don't have the most up to date version you can get it from:

http://www.ultranet.com/~mitchmcc/

It is also posted on or about the 15th of each month to: rec.autos.sport.f1 rec.autos.sport.info rec.answers news.answers

This version was most recently updated on October 15, 1996.

The following list of Frequently Asked Questions has been put together with the help many people and their input is greatly appreciated. All contributors are acknowledged at the end of this FAQ and sections which are substantially the work of one person are denoted with that persons initials.

This FAQ is a work in progress and further submissions in the way of questions and/or answers are encouraged. You can e-mail me, Mitchell McCann, at mitchmcc@ultranet.com

Please note that there is also a r.a.s.* FAQ by Andrew Henry which contains a lot of information that is of interest to F1 fans. Unfortunately, that FAQ is no longer being updated so some of the information may be dated but it is still well worth reading.

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 1996 F1 schedule 1.2 What is Formula One? What is the FIA? What is FOCA? 1.3 Ticket information

2. THE TEAMS 2.1 Arrows 2.2 Benetton 2.3 Ferrari 2.4 Forti 2.5 Jordan 2.6 Ligier 2.7 McLaren 2.8 Minardi 2.9 Sauber 2.10 Tyrrell 2.11 Williams

3. THE DRIVERS 3.1 Jean Alesi 3.2 Luca Badoer 3.3 Rubens Barrichello 3.4 Gerhard Berger 3.5 Martin Brundle 3.6 David Coultard 3.7 Pedro Diniz 3.8 Juan Manuel Fangio 3.9 Giancarlo Fisichella 3.10 Heinz-Harald Frentzen 3.11 Mika Hakkinen 3.12 Johnny Herbert 3.13 Damon Hill 3.14 Eddie Irvine 3.15 Ukyo Katayama 3.16 Pedro Lamy 3.17 Jan Magnussen 3.18 Tarso Marques 3.19 Andrea Montermini 3.20 Olivier Panis 3.21 Mika Salo 3.22 Michael Schumacher 3.23 Ayrton Senna 3.24 Jos Verstappen 3.25 Jacques Villeneuve

4. THE RULES 4.1 How many points are scored for a win? 4.2 Is that a brake light on the back of the cars? 4.3 The start. 4.4 The finish. 4.5 What is the safety car for? 4.6 What is a stop-go penalty? 4.7 What do the different colored flags mean? 4.8 Is mid-race re-fueling allowed? 4.9 What is the 107% rule? 4.10 Who is eligible for a super-license?

5. THE CARS 5.1 Why V10 engines? 5.2 How big are the engines? 5.3 How much does a car weigh? 5.4 What is the tub made of? 5.5 How many gears do the cars have? 5.6 Interesting engine facts.

6. MISCELLANEOUS 6.1 What happens during a pit-stop? 6.2 Sponsorship. 6.3 What's the difference between F1 and Indy? 6.4 How many teams are there? 6.5 What is the connection between Ford and Cosworth? 6.6 What radio frequencies do the teams use? 6.7 How can you tell team-mates apart? 6.8 Why is Frank Williams in a wheelchair? 6.9 What is happening to UK TV coverage in 1997?

7. NETIQUETTE

8. WEB SITES

9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 1996 schedule Winner

March 10th Melbourne Australia Hill March 31st Interlagos Brazil Hill April 7th Buenos Aires Argentina Hill April 28th Nurenburgring Europe Villeneuve May 5th Imola San Marino Hill May 19th Monte Carlo Monaco Panis June 2nd Barcelona Spain Schumacher June 16th Montreal Canada Hill June 30th Magny-Cours France Hill July 14th Silverstone Great Britain Villeneuve July 28th Hockenheim Germany Hill August 11th Budapest Hungary Villeneuve August 25th Spa-Francorchamps Belgium Schumacher September 8th Monza Italy Schumacher September 22nd Estoril Portugal Villeneuve October 13th Suzuka Japan Hill

1.2 What is Formula One? What is the FIA? What is FOCA? [AH]

FIA politics is really grungy stuff. The Federation Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) is the governing and sanctioning body for the FIA World Driver's Championship, which is run to a set of technical and procedural regulations and specifications known as Formula One. The FIA's competition committee, which consists of representatives of the motor sport organizing bodies of the member countries (eg ACCUS represents the US, the RAC represents the UK, the FFSA represents France), sets the F1 regulations, interprets them, and judges any appeals or disputes.

The Formula One Constructor's Association (FOCA) is an organisation of the chassis builders (constructors) who design and build the cars that race in the F1 Grands Prix. Since the rules these days say that a constructor can supply cars to only one team, constructor and team are more or less synonymous.

Max Mosley (son of British fascist leader Oswald Mosley) is the president of the FIA and is in charge of its day-to-day operations. Bernie Ecclestone, who used to own and manage the Brabham F1 team, is the president of the FOCA and also the vice-president of marketing for the FIA. Originally, all the F1 Grands Prix were independent events, independently financed and organized within their host countries. The FIA merely set the technical regulations for F1, and designated certain Grands Prix to be the qualifying rounds for the Driver's and Constructor's Championships. Up until sometime in the 1970s, there were other Grands Prix held besides those races included in the FIA Championship. But the idea of non-Championship Grands Prix died out as it became more and more expensive to hold F1 events. As time went by, the Constructor's Association (FOCA) took on a bigger and bigger role in the business side of Grand Prix racing. They organized and coordinated the sponsorship of the events, sold the television rights, and did the logistics and financing of moving the Grand Prix `circus' from country to country.

Then, in the late 1970s, Jean-Marie Balestre was elected as head of the Committee du Sport Internationale (CSI), the committee of the FIA directly involved in supervising F1. He decided that the FIA should take back more control over the sport. When he tried to impose his will autocratically, Bernie Ecclestone and the other constructors in FOCA resisted. There was a big power struggle between FISA (Federation Internationale du Sport Automotive, Balestre's new name for the CSI) and FOCA in the early 1980s. Some Grands Prix got cancelled or had their championship status stripped as a result. In the end, FISA and the FIA won out over the FOCA, mainly, I think, because the teams were not unanimously behind the FOCA (not all constructors were FOCA members), and because the sponsors, race organizers, and others involved in Grand Prix racing prevailed on both sides to settle things amicably. But for a while, the FOCA was talking about forming a new F1 championship series comprising the races that it organized, while the FIA of course was threatening to refuse sanctioning for those races. There almost were two `World Championship' series. Later on, Bernie Ecclestone was appointed marketing director for the FIA, but he still retains his presidency of FOCA. So Bernie is still in charge of the organizational and financial side of Grand Prix racing, but now officially as part of the FIA instead of in an independent organisation.

The agreement between FISA and FOCA over control of F1 is called the Concorde Agreement. Among other things, it says that except in the case of emergencies, changes to technical regulations must be announced two years in advance of the date of adoption, unless all constructors agree unanimously to adopt the regulations earlier. This came up in 1994 because Max Mosley wanted to introduce several major technical changes in the wake of a series of fatal and near-fatal accidents in F1. He made these changes without the unanimous agreement called for by the Concorde Agreement, by claiming that this was an emergency situation.

So Max Mosley, as FIA president, is responsible for setting rules and policy for F1, but he's limited by the Concorde Agreement in how quickly and how far he can push things his way. Since Bernie Ecclestone still controls the purse strings for Grand Prix racing, he still carries a lot of clout. As for `can somebody take it away', the FIA president is elected by the representatives from the member countries. When Max Mosley's current term is up, he could be voted out. Similarly, I think that the constructors could oust Ecclestone if they wanted to.

1.3 Ticket information

(Editor's note: I would like to expand on this section and possibly make it a separate posting. Anybody who has this sort of information on any regular and/or future venues, please let me know).

Canada - Grand Prix Molson du Canada Phone: (514) 392-4731 Fax: (514) 392-0007 1996 prices - Gold 3 day Can$295 Silver 3 day Can$250 Bronze 3 day Can$135 Bronze daily Can$50, 60 and 85 G.A. 3 day Can$60 G.A. daily Can$20, 30 and 40

Consensus seems to be that the stands at the hairpin, silver or bronze, are the best value for money. Golds are over-priced. General Admission - can be OK but get there very early. Circuit accessible by public transport - subway to Ile St-Helene station.

Belgian Grand Prix Spa Francorchamps (usually held at last weekend of August)

R.F.P. Route du Circuit 55 B-4970 Francorchamps Tel +32 87-27.51.46 / 27.51.38 Fax +32 87-27.55.51 / 27.52.96

1994 Prices =========== Tickets: Friday Saturday Sunday Weekend Green BEF 700 1.500 2.500 4.000 Bronze BEF 1.000 2.000 3.500 5.000 Silver BEF 1.500 3.000 6.000 7.000 Gold BEF ---- ---- 8.000 9.000

Green is limited access only, which means you allowed to stand on the banking along the 'Kemmel' straight. Bronze gives you access to (practically) all around the circuit. There are some pretty fast corners at Spa, which are a must to be seen {Usually a spin or two occurs at well :-)}. A Silver ticket buys you a place at the open tribunes, while Gold either gives you right to sit at the covered tribune at the finish line or the tribune facing the awesome 'Eau Rouge' corner.

Looking for a place to stay? The Tourist Office might help you out: Spa Office du Tourisme Place Royal 41 B 4900 Spa Tel (+32) 87 77.17.00 Fax (+32) 87 77.07.00

Monaco Grand Prix Always held at the weekend following Ascension day.

The following information about the event in 1996 was found on the Webpages at http://www.monaco.mc/monaco/gprix/stand.html

Prices Thursday Saturday Sunday Stand Situation 16-May 18-May 19-May A1 Saint Devote - Tabac 250F 600F 1400F A3 Viaduc Saint Devote 250F 600F 1400F A4 Ave de la Costa - 300F 500F B Casino 250F 700F 1400F E Chicane - 600F 1400F K Quai Albert 1er 300F 750F 1500F M Route de la Piscine 300F 700F 1400F N Piscine panne Nord 200F 450F 900F O Piscine Plongeur 200F 600F 1400F P Piscine panne Sud 200F 450F 900F L Piscine Rainier III 200F 450F 900F T Cale de halage 150F 300F - U Virage Rascasse 250F - - V Virage Anthony Noghes 250F 600F 1400F W Courbe des Gazometres 250F 600F 1400F Z1 Av J.F. Kennedy 100F 200F 300F Z2 Virage Anthony Noghes 150F 300F 600F

R Rocher de Monaco - 150F 200F

Seating Notes General: Stands K,M have the best view of the large TV screen (positioned above and behind stand Z1.) Stand R is a large grass bank with a view down over the port. There are no official seats. The large TV can also be seen from this stand.

Thursday: The tickets do not reference a seat number. You are free to sit anywhere in the stand you have chosen. Stands K,M: The ticket allows access to K and M. Stands N,O,P: The ticket allows access to N,O and P.

Friday: The stands are free. The circuit is only operational in the morning and there is no Formula 1 action.

Saturday: The tickets for all stands except Z,Z1,R are numbered to specific seats.

Sunday: The tickets for all stands except Z,Z1,R are numbered to specific seats.

Buying Tickets

The Monaco Grand Prix tickets are on sale at the Automobile Club of Monaco Reservations Office *) or at the accredited agents:

France: Voyages Kuoni 2 rue Marechal Joffre 06000 Nice Tel: 93.16.08.02, FAX: 93.16.15.45

Great Britain: Page and Moy 136 London Road Leicester LE2 1EN Tel: (116) 252.4344, FAX: (116) 252.4283

Italy: Bononia Viaggi Galleria del Toro 3 40121 Bologna Tel: (51) 26.39.85, FAX: (51) 23.93.17

Switzerland: A.C. der Schweiz Birsigstrasse 4 4011 Basel Tel: (61) 272.39.33, FAX: (61) 281.36.57

*) Automobile Club de Monaco 23, Bd. Albert 1er MC98012 Monaco Tel: 93.15.26.00 FAX: 93.25.80.08

PORTUGUESE GRAND PRIX

Contact info: ACP (Automovel Clube de Portugal) R. Rosa Araujo, 24 P 1250 Lisboa

Tel: 351 1 3563931 351 1 7936899 Fax: 351 1 577708 351 1 7930597

1996 PRICES +------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+ | Grandstand | Friday | Saturday | Sunday | Weekend | +------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+ | A | - | - | - | 40 000$ | +------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+ | B | - | - | - | 35 000$ | +------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+ | C | 6 000$ | 10 000$ | 20 000$ | 23 000$ | +------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+ | E | 6 000$ | 10 000$ | 12 000$ | 16 000$ | +------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+ | H | 6 000$ | 12 000$ | 20 000$ | 25 000$ | +------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+ |K (no seats)| - | - | 10 000$ | 12 000$ | +------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+ |Paddock Vip | - | - | - | US $1300 | +------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+

Prices in Portugueses escudos (except Paddock in US dollars). Some exchange rates: 1 UKP ~= 239$ 1 US $ ~= 158$ 1 DM ~= 103$ 1 FF ~= 30$ Check http://bin.gnn.com/cgi-bin/gnn/currency?Portugal for other exchange rates.

In 1995, in the C/E/H/K grandstands children up to age of 12 years accompanied by an adult payed 50% of adult price.

Check Rui Pedro Mendes Salgueiro's home page http://www.mat.uc.pt/~rps/f1/ for a map of the track, with the position of the grandstands.

A - In the start-finish line B - Just after the A C - On the outside of the first bend K - On the inside of the track, from the first bend to the beginning of the fourth. E - On the inside of the track, near the new chicane. Moving around it is possible to see from the inside parabolica to the chicane and the Ss (there are more than one grandstand in this area). H - On the outside of the Parabolica Senna.

2. THE TEAMS

2.1 Arrows Engine: Hart V8 Nationality: British Key personnel: Tom Walkinshaw - owner Year formed: 1977 Formula 1 debut: 1978 1995 car/drivers: FA16 - Inoue, Papis, Morbidelli 1996 car/drivers: FA17 - Rosset, Verstappen Address: Arrows Grand Prix International 39 Barton Road Water Eaton Industrial Estate Bletchley, Milton Keynes Buckinghamshire MK2 3HW U.K.

Founded in 1977 by Jackie Oliver and Alan Rees, Arrows is currently the oldest F1 team never to have a won a GP. Their most successful season was 1988 when Eddie Cheever and Derek Warwick took them to 5th place in the constructor's championship.

In 1989 the team was bought by the Japanese courier company Footwork. In 94 following Footwork's financial problems, Oliver and Rees regained control of the team although the Footwork name lingered on (as far as the car designation is concerned) due to FOCA rules which meant that the team would have lost their travel money from FOCA if they had switched names - this rule could have been waived with the consent of all the teams but Ron Dennis and at least one other refused to sign off on the waiver. In 1996, having been unable to gain full control of Ligier, Tom Walkinshaw bought the Arrows team bringing in many of his TWR people from Ligier. Of course, since then Ligier has won a GP and Arrows hasn't - which is kind of ironic. The name of the TEAM has been changed to TWR Arrows but the car is still designated as a Footwork.

2.2 Benetton Engine: Renault RS8 Nationality: Italian (nominally British until '96) Key personnel: Flavio Briatore - Managing Director Ross Brawn - Technical Director Year formed: 1970 - Toleman Formula 1 debut: 1981 1995 car/drivers: B195 - Herbert, Schumacher 1996 car/drivers: B196 - Alesi, Berger Address: Benetton Formula Ltd. Whiteways Technical Centre Enstone, Chipping Norton Oxfordshire OX8 6XZ U.K.

The Mild Seven Benetton Renault B196

Front Double wishbone and pushrod with Benetton designed suspension: and manufactured suspension system located on top of the monocoque.

Rear Double wishbone and pushrod with upper mounted suspension: Benetton designed and manufactured damper units.

Transmiss: Benetton semi-automatic 7 speed gearbox. Triple plate clutch. Fuel system:ATL rubber fuel cell mounted within monocoque structure behind cockpit. Oil system: Oil tank within bell-housing providing two gallon/ nine liter capacity. Cooling Separate water and oil cooling; water radiators in system: each sidepod. Electrical: Hardware and software developed jointly by Benetton and Magnetti Marelli. Brakes: Carbon fibre discs and pads.

Engine: Renault RS8 Cylinders: V10 at 67 degree angle Dimensions: 623 x 540.6 x 420.2 Weight: Approximately 132 kg according to accessories Valves: Four per cylinder

Benetton entered Formula 1 as a sponsor of the Tyrrell team in 1983 and then Alfa Romeo in '84 and '85. On January 1st 1986 they made the leap from sponsorship to ownership, buying the Toleman team and moving into their premises in Witney in England. In their first season they achieved two poles, one victory (Berger at the Mexican GP) and 6th place in the constructor's championship and they have improved steadily ever since. From '87 - '90 they finished 5th, 3rd, 4th and 3rd in the championship. In '91 Schumacher made his F1 debut and was signed to a full time ride in '92 partnered by Martin Brundle. Schumacher and Benetton finished their respective championships in 3rd. They could not improve on their performance in '93 but by '94 Schumacher had become a force to be reckoned with and he took the driver's championship in controversial fashion at the end of a controversial season. In 95 Benetton completed the sweep of driver's and constructor's championships with relative ease.

2.3 Ferrari Engine: Ferrari Nationality: Italian Key personnel: Luca Cordero di Montezemolo - Chairman Jean Todt - Sport Director John Barnard - Technical director Year formed: 1929 Formula 1 debut: 1950 1995 car/drivers: 412T2 - Alesi, Berger 1996 car/drivers: F310 - Schumacher, Irvine Address: Ferrari SpA Casella Postale 589 Via Emilia 1163 I-41100 Maranello (Modena) Italy Sponsors: Marlboro, Shell, Asprey, Magnetti Marelli, Telecom Italia, Goodyear, Pioneer, Arexons, BBS, Brembo, SKF, Cerruti, Momo, NGK, TRW Sabelt, USAG, Ve. Ca. Impianti

The Ferrari F310

Suspension:Independent, push-rod activated torsion spring front and rear. Transmiss: Ferrari transverse gearbox.Limited slip differential. Semi-automatic sequential electronically controlled gearbox. Six gears plus reverse.

Engine: 3000 Ferrari (046) Cylinders: V10 at 75 degree angle Number of valves: 40 Displacement: 2,998.1 cc Max. power: > 600 HP Electrical: Magnetti Marelli

Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1929, Ferrari is the oldest team in F1 and the only one to have raced since the beginning of F1 in 1950. Scuderia Ferrari was initially formed as an engineering-racing division of Alfa Romeo for whom Ferrari had worked since 1920. Ferrari abandoned the Alfa connection in 1940 and after the war began designing and building the very first Ferrari. In 1969 Fiat bought a 50% stake in the company and became majority shareholder in 1988.

>From 1950 - 1995, 86 drivers have driven for Ferrari, 31 winning at least 1 GP, for a total of 105 victories, 114 pole positions, 9 driver's titles and 8 constructor's titles (since '58) - all records.

Driver's titles went to: Ascari (52, 53), Fangio (56), Hawthorn (58), P.Hill(61), Surtees (64), Lauda (75, 77) and Schekter (79). Winningest drivers are: Lauda 15, Ascari 13, Ickx 6, Villeneuve 6, Berger 5, Prost 5, Reutemann 5.

Ferrari won the constructor's championship in: 61, 64, 75, 76, 77, 79, 82 and 83.

2.4 Forti Engine: Ford Zetec V8. Nationality: Italian Key personnel: Guido Forti - owner Giorgio Stirano - Chief Designer Year formed: Formula 1 debut: 1995 1995 car/drivers: FG01 - Diniz, Moreno 1996 car/drivers: FG03 - Badoer, Montermini Address: Forti Corse S.R.L. Via Luigi Einaudi 1500 Alessandria Italy

2.5 Jordan Engine: Peugeot Nationality: Irish Key personnel: Owner - Eddie Jordan Chief Designer - Gary Anderson Year formed: 1980 Formula 1 debut: 1991 1995 car/drivers: 195 - Barrichello, Irvine 1996 car/drivers: 196 - Barrichello, Brundle Address: Jordan Grand Prix Silverstone Circuit Towcester Northamptonshire NN12 8TN

Sponsors: Total, Ape, Beta, Cadtek, Carrs Paints, Control Techniques, Diavia, Guam, Hewlett-Packard, Kremlyovskaya, Osama, Motorscan, Pepsi, Ruffles, Sally Ferries, Scania, Uliveto, Unipart, Benson and Hedges

The Jordan Peugeot 196

Front Composite pushrods activating twin Jordan GP suspension: dampers, unequal length aerodynamic wishbones, composite top wishbone, steel lower wishbone, steel fabricated uprights and front anti-roll bar.

Rear Composite pushrods activating twin gearbox mounted suspension: Jordan GP dampers, unequal length aerodynamic wishbones, composite top wishbone, steel lower wishbone, steel fabricated uprights and rear anti- roll bar.

Transmiss: In house Jordan GP design. 7 speed + reverse longitudinal gearbox with electronically operated hydraulic sequential gearchange. Clutch: Triple plate Jordan Peugeot racing clutch. Brakes: Brembo braking system. 8 piston metal matrix callipers on front and rear. SEP carbon discs and pads. Wheels: Forged OZ Racing to Jordan GP specification. Fuel tank: 145 litres Wheelbase: 2950mm Front track:1700mm Rear track: 1618mm Overall height: 950mm Overall length: 4450mm Overall weight: 600 kg including driver

Engine: Peugeot A12EV5 Cylinders: V10 at 72 degree angle Capacity: 2998cc Timing: By gear group Valves: 4 per cylinder, with pneumatic return Cylinder blocks and heads: Light alloy Camshafts: 2 per bank of cylinders Fuel supply and ignition: TAG electronic control Dimensions: 620 x 538 x 408 Weight: 133kg

Eddie Jordan raced in karts, FF1600, Formula Atlantic, F3 and F2 and was a test driver for McLaren before establishing Eddie Jordan Racing in 1980 initially to support his own racing career. He retired from driving in 1981 to concentrate on running the team. He signed David Sears to drive a Ralt-Toyota in the 1981 British F3 series. The team started its first event from the front row and ended up on the rostrum after finishing second.

Between 1981 and 1989 the team ran several F3 cars in Britain, Europe, France and in 1985 they also began competing in the newly created F3000. During these years many drivers took a seat in Jordan cars including Martin Brundle, Stefan Johansson, David Hunt, Johnny Herbert, Jean Alesi and a first F3 test for Ayrton Senna in August '82. The Jordan team was a consistent race winner and narrowly missed out on the Championships before securing the F3 title in 1987 with Herbert winning 5 races. They won the F3000 championship in 1989 with Alesi beating out Herbert.

As the move towards F1 gathered pace, Jordan concentrated his efforts solely on F3000 in 1990, running three Mugen powered Reynards for Eddie Irvine, Heinz Harald Frentzen and Emanuele Naspetti. Irvine was the dominant of the three gaining 3rd place in the championship with a race win at Hockenheim. Jordan was still active in F3000 in 1991 with the two-car Team Barclay EJR though an uncompetitive chassis prevented Damon Hill and Vincenzo Sospiri from achieving better results than a 2nd at Hockenheim (Sospiri) a third place at Nogard (Hill).

The fledgling F1 team however were to prove the success story of the motorsport year. Jordan Grand Prix took the F1 establishment by surprise in 1991 finishing an unprecedented 5th in the Constructor's championship in their first season.

1992 was to be a frustrating year and the team only scored one championship point at the final race in Adelaide. It was announced at the Australian GP that Jordan had signed an exclusive agreement with Brian Hart for the supply of his new V10 engine for the 93 and 94 seasons. A few weeks later Rubens Barrichello was signed to the team. The team did not score points in 93 until the penultimate round in Japan with Barrichello finishing 5th followed by F1 newcomer Eddie Irvine making his GP debut.

The team was much improved in 94 retaining both drivers and engine partner. Despite Irvine's three race ban for his involvement in the incident at the Brazilian GP, the team finished the year with 28 points, 5th place in the constructors, a rostrum finish and a pole position - both courtesy of Barrichello.

In October 94 Jordan announced that they had signed a three year exclusive engine deal with Peugeot. The team maintained the same driver line-up but the team did not live up to their promise scoring just two rostrum finishes - 2nd and 3rd at the Canadian GP. The same driver line-up was again announced for '96 but just one week later Eddie Irvine was lured away by Ferrari - Jordan receiving several million in compensation from the Italian team. Martin Brundle has returned to the Jordan team taking Irvine's place.

2.6 Ligier Engine: Honda Nationality: French Key personnel: Technical Director - Andre de Cortanze Year formed: Formula 1 debut: 1995 car/drivers: JS41 - Brundle, Panis, Suzuki 1996 car/drivers: JS43 - Diniz, Panis Address: Ligier Sports Technopole de la Nievre 58470 Magny Cours France

2.7 McLaren Engine: Mercedes Nationality: British Key personnel: Managing Director - Ron Dennis Chief Designer - Neil Oatley Year formed: 1963 - Bruce McLaren Motor Racing Ltd. Formula 1 debut: 1966 - Monaco 1995 car/drivers: MP4/10 - Blundell, Hakkinen, Mansell, Magnussen 1996 car/drivers: MP4/11 - Coulthard, Hakkinen Address: McLaren International Ltd. Woking Business Park Albert Drive Woking, Surrey GU 21 5JY U.K. Sponsors: Marlboro, Hugo Boss, Tag-Heuer, Essilor, Abac, Asics, Charmilles Technologies, GS Battery, Enkei,Sports Marketing Surveys, Highland Spring, Targetti, Mobil, Loctite, Goodyear, Kenwood, Instron, Computervision, Sun Microsystems

The Marlboro McLaren Mercedes MP4/11

Front Inboard spring/damper operated by pushrod bellcrank suspension: unequal length wishbones

Rear Inboard spring/damper operated by pushrod bellcrank suspension: unequal length wishbones

Transmiss: McLaren longitudinal six speed gearbox with semi- automatic operation. Control by TAG Electronic Systems. McLaren drive shafts and CV assemblies. Dampers: Penske Brakes: AP Racing calipers and master cylinders Wheels: Enkei

Engine: Mercedes-Benz FO110 - Phase 3 Cubic capacity: 3000cc Component drive: Geartrain Cylinders: V10 at 75 degree angle Cylinder block: Sand cast aluminum alloy, wet liners Cylinder heads: One piece sand cast aluminum alloy Crankshaft: Forged steel Camshaft: Two per bank of cylinders, 4 valves per cylinder Injection and ignition: TAG Electronic Systems Dimensions: 590mm x 500mm x 522mm Spark plugs: NGK

Bruce McLaren founded the team that bears his name in 1963. Their F1 debut came in 1966 and their first GP win was in 1968 in Belgium with Bruce himself at the wheel. Bruce McLaren died in 1970 while testing a Can-Am sportscar at Goodwood. Having signed up with Marlboro in '74, a partnership that persists to this day, McLaren won driver (Fittipaldi) and constructor's championships and then the driver's championship again in '76 (Hunt).

In 1980, at the urging of mutual sponsor Marlboro, the team merged with Ron Dennis' Project Four to form McLaren International (The MP4 in the car designation stands for Marlboro Project Four). In '84, switching from Ford to Porsche TAG, McLaren again won both driver's and constructor's championships with Lauda beating Prost to the driver's title by half a point. This marked the beginning of McLaren's domination of F1 which was to last through the 91 season. Switching to Honda in 1988, they won constructor's championships in 84, 85, 88, 89, 90 and 91. They were equally successful in the driver's championship winning in 85 and 86 (Prost), 88 (Senna), 89 (Prost), 90 and 91 (Senna). Due to this long period of almost complete dominance, McLaren is second only to Ferrari with 104 GP wins, 7 constructor's titles and 9 driver's titles.

Despite switching engines in 93 (Ford), 94 (Peugeot) and 95 (Mercedes), McLaren has not been able to re-create this success and has not won a GP since 1993. They finished 95 in fourth place but Jordan, Sauber and Ligier are all threatening McLaren's place as one of the Big Four.

2.8 Minardi Engine: Ford Nationality: Italian Key personnel: Owners - Gian Carlo Minardi - Giuseppe Lucchini Technical director - Mauro Gennari Year formed: 1974 Formula 1 debut: 1985 1995 car/drivers: M195 - Badoer, Lamy, Martini 1996 car/drivers: M195B- Fisichella, Lamy, Lavaggi,

Marques Address: Minardi Scuderia Italia Via Spallanzani 21 Faenza (RA) Italy

The Minardi Ford 195B

Suspension: Inboard spring via rocker and pushrod to bottom wishbone (front and rear) Dampers: Penske Brakes: Brembo Brake discs:Carbone Industrie Gearbox: Xtrac gearbox and Minardi electrohydraulic system. 6 speeds plus reverse. Wheels: Fondmetal Length: 4350mm Width: 1980mm Height: 995mm Wheelbase: 2853.5mm Engine: Ford ED2 V8 Injection: Magnetti Marelli

Based on the experience accumulated in motor racing with the 'Scuderia del Passatore' in 1972 and "Scuderia Everest' in 1974 Gian Carlo Minardi felt capable of constructing his own cars and in 1979 he founded the Minardi team in association with Piero Mancini and Giacomo Caliri. The first Minardi F2 cars, equipped with BMW engines, got good results such as Alboreto's win at Misano. In 1985 Minardi entered F1 with a car driven by Pierluigi Martini and powered by a Motori Moderni turbo engine. In 1986 a big jump was foreseen and the signing of qualified drivers such as Andrea de Cesaris and Alessandro Nannini testified to that. Unfortunately the sophisticated technology of the turbo engines and reliability problems didn't allow the achievement of significant results. In 1988 Minardi switched to Ford Cosworth engines and signed Spanish drivers Luis Sala and Adrian Campos. After the Canadian GP, Campos retired and was replaced by Martini who scored Minardi's first championship point with 6th place in Detroit.

In 1989 Martini and Sala scored top six finishes and Martini started third on the grid twice. In 1990 Sala was replaced by Paolo Barilla. The high point of the season, during which Minardi did not score any points, was Martini's front row start at the U.S. GP. In 1991 Minardi adopted the V12 Ferrari engine and after struggling with it at the beginning of the season finished 7th in the constructor's championship. In 92 they switched drivers and engines going with the Lamborghini V12 and Gianni Morbidelli and Christian Fittipaldi but scored only one point. 93 was a slightly better year with Fittipaldi and Fabrizio Barbazza both scoring points to give Minardi 8th place in the constructor's championship.

In 1994 Minardi merged with the Scuderia Italia to form the current team - Minardi Scuderia Italia. Powered by a Ford HB engine and driven by Martini and Michele Alboreto the team scored 5 points finishing 10th. 1995 represented another step backwards with the driver combination of Martini, Badoer and Lamy scoring just one point.

2.9 Sauber Engine: Ford Zetec-R V10 Nationality: Swiss Key personnel: Owner - Peter Sauber Chief Designer - Leo Ress Year formed: 1968 Formula 1 debut: 1993 1995 car/drivers: C14 - Boullion, Frentzen, Wendlinger 1996 car/drivers: C15 - Frentzen, Herbert Address: Wildbachstrasse 9 CH-8340 Hinwil Switzerland

Sponsors: Red Bull, Baumler, Brembo, Goodyear, Hertz, IBM, MacNeal-Schwendler, MAN Nutzfahrzeuge, Modellbau Bubeck, OMP, Sachs, Silicon Graphics, Speedline

The Red Bull Sauber-Ford C15

Suspension: Upper and lower wishbones, combined spring/damper units (Sachs) mounted inboard with pushrod actuation, front and rear. Brakes: Eight-piston calipers front and rear (Brembo) carbon pads and discs (Carbone Industries) Transmiss: Semi-automatic, longitudinally mounted, six-speed transmission (Sauber), carbon clutch (Sachs) Dimensions: Length: 4340mm Width: 2000mm Height: 1000mm Front track:1710mm Rear track: 1610mm Wheel base: 2900mm

Engine: Ford Zetec-R V10 Number of cylinders: 10 in 72 degree V Number of valves: 40 Displacement: 2998 cc Engine Management: Ford Electronics Oil system: Dry sump Ignition system: Cosworth Throttles: Light-weight barrel valves Spark plugs: Champion Weight: 120 kg Dimensions: 605mm x 520mm x 460mm

1968 Founding of PP Sauber AG 1977 First start for a Sauber (C5) at the 24 Hours if Le Mans. 1984 Sauber and Mercedes-Benz commence motorsport co-operation. 1986 Sauber cars start five rounds of the Sports Car World Championship; Sauber C8 wins Nurburgring 1000km race. 1988 Sauber cars win 5 out of 10 WSC races and the team finishes second in the Team's World Championship. 1989 Sauber C9 "Silver Arrows" secure WSC Championship and Teams' World Championship after taking 7 victories in eight races (three double wins); Sauber C9s finish 1st, 2nd and 5th at Le Mans. 1990 Sauber C11 secures WSC Drivers' and Teams' titles for the 2nd consecutive year. 1992 February 4; Sauber announces commencement of F1 project. 1993 Sauber finishes in 7th place in the F1 Constructors' championship. 1994 Sauber finishes in 8th place in the F1 Constructors' championship. 1995 Sauber finishes in 7th place in the F1 Constructors' championship.

2.10 Tyrrell Engine: Yamaha Judd Nationality: British Key personnel: Chairman - Ken Tyrrell MD (Commercial) - Bob Tyrrell MD (Engineering) - Harvey Postlethwaite Year formed: 1968 Formula 1 debut: 1968 1995 car/drivers: 023 - Katayama, Salo, Tarquini 1996 car/drivers: 024 - Katayama, Salo Address: Long Reach Ockham Woking, Surrey GU23 6PE

The Tyrrell Yamaha 024

Front and rear Combined spring and damper units operated by suspension: push-rods and rockers, third spring, mechanical anti-roll bar Dampers: Koni Gearbox: Tyrrell longitudinal three-shaft 6-speed unit Gear selection: Pneumatic, sequential Drive shafts: Tyrrell Clutch: AP Racing carbon plate Differential: Tyrrell/X-Trac viscous coupling Wheels: Fondmetal cast magnesium Fuel and lube: Elf Brakes: AP Racing

Engine: Yamaha OX11A V-10 Cylinders: V10 at 72 degree angle Displacement: 2,996cc Dry weight: < 105 kg Dimensions: 575mm x 499mm x 373mm Max. power: 650+ bhp Inject/ignit: Zytek Spark plugs: NGK

Founded by Ken Tyrrell and owned by the Tyrrell family, the Tyrrell Racing Organisation's history in F1 goes back to 1968 when it first entered the championship using Ford Cosworth powered Matras. After winning both championships in 1969, with Matra and Jackie Stewart, construction began on the first Tyrrell GP car which made its debut at the 1970 Canadian GP. In the next year, 1971, Tyrrell cars clinched the Constructor's Championship and finished 1st and 3rd in the Driver's Championship. Tyrrell has won a total of two Constructor's and three Driver's titles as well as the 1987 Drivers and Constructor's titles for normally aspirated cars.

2.11 Williams Engine: Renault RS8 Nationality: British Key personnel: Frank Williams - Owner Patrick Head - Technical Director Adrian Newey - Chief Designer Year formed: 1977 1995 car/drivers: FW17 - Coulthard, Hill 1996 car/drivers: FW18 - Hill, Villeneuve Formula 1 debut: 1977 Address: Williams Grand Prix Engineering Ltd. Grove Wantage OX12 0DQ U.K.

Frank Williams began his Formula 1 career in 1969 at the age of 27 with his close friend Piers Courage and a private Brabham. They finished 8th overall in the Driver's Championship. Courage died the next year at the Dutch GP driving a car Williams was running for the de Tomaso factory.

After a disappointing partnership with Austro-Canadian oil man Walter Wolf in 1976, his new team, Williams Grand Prix Engineering, acquired a March for Patrick Neve to drive and Williams recruited a promising engineer named Patrick Head. Head's first GP design in 1978, the FW06, with Alan Jones at the wheel, was extremely competitive. Williams first GP victory came at the British GP in 1979 when Jones retired from the lead but Clay Regazzoni took the victory for Williams.

Williams quickly became the team to beat taking the Constructor's championship with ease in 1980, 1981, 1986 and 1987. Williams missed out on the constructor's championship in 1982 but Keke Rosberg did take the Driver's championship. Williams responded slowly to the turbo era and struggled through 83 and 84. In 85 with Mansell joining Rosberg the team improved through the year with the Williams-Honda FW10 taking the last three races of the season. By 86 they were back on top with the FW11 and, with Piquet replacing Rosberg, the team won 9 GPs (Mansell 5, Piquet 4) giving Williams the constructor's championship with ease although they lost the drivers championship to Prost due to the in-team fighting. The modified FW11 continued its dominance in 87 and Williams took 1st and 2nd in the driver's championship and the constructor's championship.

1988 marked the end of the turbo era, Williams switched from Honda to Judd for the FW12 and Mansell became the #1 driver partnered by Ricardo Patrese. Williams suffered from mechanical problems and in July 88 a three year deal was signed with Renault for their new V10 engine.

Thierry Boutsen replaced Mansell for the 89 season and won two GPs (Canada and Australia) in atrocious weather conditions. Patrese finished 3rd in the driver's championship helping the team to runner-up spot in the constructor's.

Having retired from Ferrari and been talked out of it by Williams, Mansell returned to the team at the end of 1990. The Canon Williams FW14 was McLaren's only competition and with 7 victories they finished 2nd in the constructors and 2nd and 3rd in the driver's. The advent of the active FW14B put Williams in a class by themselves in 1992. Mansell won the first five races of the season on his way to a still unbeaten total of 9 wins and 14 poles. His win at the British GP was his 28th beating Jackie Stewart's record for a British driver. Mansell and Williams won their respective championships and Patrese finished 2nd in the driver's.

In 93 Prost and Hill replaced Mansell and Patrese and retained both constructor's and driver's (Prost) championships. Hill also chalked up his first GP win in Hungary. Prost retired after the season and was replaced by Senna. At the third GP of the year at Imola in Italy, Senna was killed when he crashed his FW16 while leading the race. It remains to be seen whether the Italian authorities are going to charge Williams personnel in connection with Senna's death. The team went on to retain the constructor's championship again but Hill missed out on the driver's championship by one point to Michael Schumacher.

3. THE DRIVERS

3.1 Jean Alesi Nationality: French Age - DOB: 31 - June 11th, 1964 Born: Avignon, France Resident: Nyon, Switzerland Current team: Benetton Former team(s): Tyrrell, Ferrari

Alesi was born in France to Sicilian parents. Like many of his contemporaries he began his career in karts but at the relatively late age of 17. He won two regional titles and moved on to the Renault 5 Cup in 1983 finishing 7th with 1 win. 1984 and '85 saw Alesi in Formula Renault finishing 10th and 5th respectively. In '86 he competed in the French F3 championship finishing 2nd in '86 and 1st in '87. The next two years were in F3000 with Oreca in 88, finishing 10th, and Eddie Jordan in '89 finishing 1st.

In addition to the F3000 championship, Alesi also made his F1 debut in '89 with Tyrrell. He finished 4th in his first GP (France) and went onto score a total of 8 points for 9th place from just 8 races. He was retained by Tyrrell for the 1990 season and finished in 9th place with 13 points. In 1991 Alesi was signed by Ferrari where he has remained for the last 5 seasons with rather disappointing results due no doubt to the unreliable and/or uncompetitive cars that Ferrari has put out in the last few years. Between 1991 and 1994 Alesi has scored 13, 21, 18 and 16 points respectively placing him 7th, 7th, 6th and 5th in the championship. Ferrari was much improved in 95 and Alesi finished the season with 42 points placing him 5th in the championship. '95 also saw Alesi's first ever GP win in Canada. In an emotional finish, Alesi brought the #27 Ferrari across the line first before an adoring French-Canadian crowd in Montreal. Alesi, along with his Ferrari team-mate Berger, have both been signed by Benetton for the '96 season.

Jean is single.

3.2 Luca Badoer Nationality: Italian Age - DOB: 25 - January 24th 1971 Born: Montebelluna, Italy Resident: Montebelluna Current team: Forti Former team(s): BMS Scuderia Italia, Minardi

Between 1985 and 1988 Badoer raced karts winning regional and national championships. In 89 he moved on to F3 before spending one season in F3000 in 1992. He broke into F1 in 1993 with BMS Scuderia Italia and after their demise he signed with Minardi as test driver. In 95 he raced for Minardi with little distinction, his best finish being 8th, before signing with Forti for the 1996 season.

Luca is single.

3.3 Rubens Barrichello Nationality: Brazilian Age - DOB: 24 - May 23rd, 1972 Born: Sao Paolo, Brazil Resident: Monaco Current team: Jordan Former team(s): None

Barrichello began his racing career at the age of 9, competing in and winning various local and national karting championships between 1983 and 1988. In 1989 he moved onto Formula Ford and finished 4th in the Brazilian championship with the Arisco team. In 1990 he moved to Europe and won the Opel-Lotus European championship with the Draco team and in 1991 followed up by winning the British F3 championship with West Surrey Racing. In 1992 he finished 3rd in the F3000 championship with Il Barone Rampante. He joined Jordan in 1993 and has experienced increasing success in his 3 seasons in F1. In '93 he gained 2 points, in '94 he finished 6th in the driver's championship with 19 points, his first rostrum finish and pole at Spa - the youngest pole-sitter ever at the age of 22. In '95 he had an unspectacular season finishing 11th with 11 points.

Rubens is single with no children.

3.4 Gerhard Berger Nationality: Austrian Age - DOB: 36 - August 27th, 1959 Born: Woergl, Austria Resident: Monaco Current team: Benetton Former team(s): ATS, Arrows, Benetton, Ferrari, McLaren Ferrari Now in his 12th year of F1 racing, Berger is one of the elder statesmen of the sport. His career began in saloon cars in 1979. In 1981 he competed in the Alfasud European Cup (finishing 7th) before moving onto F3 the next year. Berger spent 3 years in F3 and at the end of 1984 broke into F1 with ATS. He competed in 4 races that season gaining 1 point for a 6th place at the Italian GP. Berger signed with Arrows for the 1985 season and has been a permanent feature of F1 ever since driving for Benetton (86), Ferrari (87-89), McLaren (90-92) and Ferrari again (93-95).

Although he has never managed to win it all, Berger has had several successful seasons. His best championship finish was 3rd in 1988, his best points total was 49 in '92 which was only good enough for 5th place. He has a total of 9 wins in his career with a high of 2 in a season in 87 and 92. '95 was a disappointing year finishing 6th with 31 points. For the '96 season Berger returns to Benetton, the team for whom he scored his, and Benetton's, first GP win in Mexico in '86.

Gerhard is married with one child.

3.5 Martin Brundle Nationality: British (English) Age - DOB: 37 - June 1st, 1959 Born: King's Lynn, England Resident: Gayton, Norfolk, England Current team: Jordan Former team(s): Tyrrell, Zakspeed, Williams, Brabham, Benetton, Ligier, McLaren, Ligier

Martin Brundle started his racing career in 1973 at the age of 12 driving a self-built Ford Anglia at a grass track car near his West Norfolk home. He has not missed a season in the subsequent 23 years.

Martin started Hot Rod short oval racing in 1975. The 70 mph quarter mile tracks were the site of many wins and gave Martin "star grade" status, preparing him for the cut and thrust of circuit racing. Just a few days after his 17th birthday he acquired a circuit racing license which signalled the beginning of his saloon car racing achievements. His first proper circuit race was at Oulton Park in 1977 and he went straight out and put his Toyota Celica on pole position.

1979 brought with it Martin's first single seater opportunity in FF2000. A win and several placings followed rapidly and the success prompted Martin to write a letter to Tom Walkinshaw requesting the opportunity to drive one of his entries in the BMW Championship at Snetterton. Amazingly Walkinshaw agreed and Martin lined up on the front row against an international field, eventually finishing second.

In 1980 he won the BMW Championship and competed successfully in the FF2000 series. Lack of sponsorship the following year limited his programme to saloon cars where he partnered the great Stirling Moss in the BP/Audi team.

BP came forward with a budget in 1982 which enabled him to move up into the British F3 championship. The investment was well rewarded with five pole positions and two race wins. The performance was enough to gain the prestigious Grovewood Award as the season's most promising Commonwealth driver.

Martin's potential had also been recognized by the Eddie Jordan who signed him to race for his fledgling F3 team in 1983. It was to be a memorable season with Brundle battling against Ayrton Senna in one of the most closely contested F3 championships of recent years. The Brazilian eventually took victory in the final laps of the final race of the year. The performances of both had not gone unnoticed though and they were immediately snapped up by F1 teams: Martin went to Tyrrell and immediately lived up to expectations by finishing 5th on his F1 debut at the '84 season opener in Brazil. He went on to record his first rostrum finish in his 8th GP, collecting a second place at Detroit behind Nelson Piquet. The team was subsequently excluded from the championship for a technical infringement and all Martin's points for the season were disallowed.

He spent a total of three years with Tyrrell before moving to the German Zakspeed team for 1987. His driving wasn't confined solely to single-seaters though; he began a highly successful stint in the European Touring Car Championship in 1982 with a winning drive in the TWR XJS at Donnington. Nine wins followed in '83 and '84 and he was chosen as lead driver when Jaguar returned to the World Sportscar Championship at Mosport, Canada in 1985. He won again in '87 at Spa and the following season left F1 altogether signing instead to drive for Jaguar in the USA IMSA and the World Group C Championships. '88 started with a win in January in the famous Daytona 24 hour event and ended up with a win in October when he claimed the World Championship crown at Suzuka, Japan. A test schedule with the Williams GP team, for whom he also competed in the Belgian GP in place of an unwell Mansell, completed an exhausting year for Brundle.

He was back in full-time F1 drive in 1989, signing for the Brabham team. Limited GP success was compensated for in 1990 by an IMSA GTP and WSC programme and winning the prestigious Le Mans 24 hour race for Jaguar. He also made history by finishing 1st and 2nd in the same race at Monza in 1991 driving both of the stunning Jaguar XJR 14s.

1992 was his most successful F1 season to date. He held his own against Michael Schumacher in the Benetton Ford team - one of few drivers to do so - scoring points in 11 of the 16 races including 5 podium finishes, to record 6th overall in the Driver's Championship. Unfortunately, politics intervened the next year and, to everyone's surprise, he was replaced by Ricardo Patrese for 1993. He moved to the French Ligier team with whom he finished 7th in the 93 championship highlighted by a podium finish in the San Marino GP.

Early '94 saw some brinkmanship taking place as Brundle gambled on, and claimed the McLaren seat vacated by Senna's move to Williams. 2nd and 3rd in Monaco and Australia were the high points - poor reliability was the low point although once again he finished 7th in the championship.

He moved back to Ligier in 95 but once again politics played a part in his career. In a quest to satisfy their home market. engine suppliers Mugen-Honda insisted he share his seat with Japanese driver Aguri Suzuki who raced in 6 of 17 events. Martin was Eddie Jordan's first choice when it came to replacing Irvine and after a season of uncertainty Brundle was delighted to take up the offer to drive for Jordan in 96.

Martin is married with two children.

3.6 David Coulthard Nationality: British (Scottish) Age - DOB: 25 - 27th March 1971 Born: Twynholm, Scotland Resident: Twynholm and Monaco Current team: McLaren Former team(s): Williams

After a successful karting career, Coulthard rose rapidly to F1 through FF1600, F3 and F3000. As Williams test driver in 1994, he took Senna's place at the Spanish GP and in the remaining eight races he scored 14 points. He retained his seat in 95 and has shown much promise, particularly since being released by Williams and signed by McLaren midway through the season. He joined the ranks of GP winners with a strong drive from pole position at the Portuguese GP. He finished the '95 season with 49 points in 3rd place.

David is single with no children.

3.7 Pedro Diniz Nationality: Brazilian Age - DOB: 26 - May 22nd, 1970 Born: Sao Paolo, Brazil Resident: Current team: Ligier Former team(s): Forti

Diniz raced karts for just two years before moving up to Formula Ford in 1989. '90-92 were spent in F3, first in South America and then Europe. He joined the Forti team in 1993 in F3000 where he spent two years before moving up to F1 with Forti in 95. His best finish was 9th at the Italian GP.

3.8 Juan Manuel Fangio Nationality: Argentine Age - DOB: June 24th, 1911 - July 17th, 1995 Born: Balcarce, Argentina Current team: Former team(s): Alfa, Maserati, Mercedes Benz, Ferrari, Maserati

Although subject to eternal debate, Fangio is widely regarded as the greatest driver ever. Certainly his record of 5 world championships still stands and his winning percentage of almost 50% (24 of 51) is clear evidence of his unchallenged supremacy in the 50s.

He began racing in 1934 mainly in long-distance road races in Argentina before moving to Europe and F1 racing in 1949. In the first year of the FIA championship (1950) he won three of six races finishing second in the championship to Farina. The next year he won the first of his championships driving an Alfa and taking 3 of 7 GPs. In '52 he crashed out of the non-championship Monza GP and did not compete for the rest of the season. He returned in a Maserati in '53 to his worst season, winning only one of eight GPs. Switching from Maserati to Mercedes Benz to Ferrari and back to Maserati, between '54 and '57 he was almost unbeatable, winning 17 of 28 GPs and the championship four years in a row. He competed in just two GPs in 1958 before retiring.

Unlike many of his contemporaries, Fangio lived to a ripe old age and died in 1995 after being admitted to hospital suffering from pneumonia.

-- The F1 FAQ on the Web http://www.ultranet.com/~mitchmcc

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